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A script designed for the conlang of 'Ȑiþȑa̷în'.

The language of Ȑiþȑa̷în was created at Farnad by a joint effort of Harlastes and Rakiana specifically for the use of the new ‘nation’ taking form from surviving Hyntellar, Aignar and Oumda peoples, who were later collectively known as the Ȑa̷inðâl (Ȑiþȑa̷în: ‘the agency of the world’). As a language, it was designed principally for morphemic elegance and semantic density while using the aesthetic phonemic preferences of its creators and intended speakers, perhaps inspired by the logico-mathematical concept of ‘elegance’ taught at Cynkyallat (Khalaris), Tain and Icoras. As a result, the range of consonants and vowels is relatively small, while also being highly inflected; making extensive use of suprafixes – where the first vowel-sound of a word is modified to change its grammatical function – and limited use of more standard suffix-inflection. In particular, the semantic density of Ȑiþȑa̷în made it ideal for transcription onto valuable or rare writing media as well as possessing a high level of concision in spoken form. Its most celebrated features were used in philosophy, where widespread suprafixing meant that singular concepts tended to retain their essential form regardless of grammatical function and in debate where complex ideas could be put over remarkably quickly. However, its suprafixional grammar also required excellent diction and enunciation from its speakers, precipitating a rather unique oral culture.

‘Ȑiþȑa̷în’ is a compound word from the phrase ȑīþ ȑa̷în, which literally means ‘the speech of agency’ or ‘agency’s speech’ – relating to the important concept of ‘civilisation’ or ‘the agency of a people’ in the culture of Farnad. It has five cases, five persons, five tense-aspects, and two numbers in its inflectional system, while gender and, when necessary, mood, are conveyed lexically and through word order.


oooooooo very exciting! It’s the first time I’ve heard about suprafixes. What letters exist in this language exactly? What are the five cases? What are the five persons? What are the five tense aspects? And how are they all marked?

Comment by TH3_C0N-MAN 19th August 2020

Sorry, got a bit carried away there.

Comment by TH3_C0N-MAN 19th August 2020


No. I don’t have a “Reddit” account.

Comment by TH3_C0N-MAN 19th August 2020

Copyright me.

This should answer your questions, @TH3:


Ȑiþȑa̷în possesses five core vowels and sixteen consonants, though the vowels can take on any number of formal iterations of tone and length to convey grammatical function in the suprafixing system of inflection. When the language was taught, the vowels were listed in order of deepest to highest, since a legacy of Oummawai had been to impart meaning upon vowel tone. Similarly, consonants were listed in a rough sonority hierarchy based upon the same principles. Thus, it is useful to remember that the deeper the vowel-sound, the more ‘intimately’ it was regarded, while the more sonorant the consonant-sound, the ‘stronger’ it was thought to be.

Vowels in the Language

Arranged from Deepest to Highest tone

[u] – a range of ‘u’ sounds, as in soon Transliterate as U/u [o] – a range of ‘o’ sounds, as in hock Transliterate as O/o [ɑ] – a range of ‘a’ sounds, as in far Transliterate as A/a [aɪ] – a range of dipthong ‘ai’ sounds, as in buy Transliterate as A̷I/a̷i [i] – a range of high ‘i’ sounds, as in hide Transliterate as I/i

Consonants in the Language

Arranged in approximate Sonority Hierarchy by IPA sound

[r, ɾ] – alveolar trill, as in curd (Scottish English); sometimes pronounced as an alveolar tap or flap [ɾ], especially when it is the second consonant-sound in a word. Transliterate as Ȑ/ȑ [ɹ] – alveolar approximant, as in red (RP) Transliterate as R/r [l] – alveolar lateral approximant, as in let Transliterate as L/l [m] – bilabial nasal, as in him Transliterate as M/m [n] – alveolar nasal, as in nice Transliterate as N/n [v] – voiced labiodental fricative, as in valve Transliterate as V/v [s] – voiceless alveolar sibilant, as in sand Transliterate as S/s [ð] – voiced dental fricative, as in this Transliterate as Ð/ð [ɵ] - voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative, as in thin Transliterate as Þ/þ [g] – voiced velar stop, as in gaggle Transliterate as G/g [ɉ] - voiced palatal plosive, as in geese Transliterate as Gy/gy [d] – voiced alveolar stop, as in daddy Transliterate as D/d [b] – voiced bilabial stop, as in aback Transliterate as B/b [k] – voiceless velar stop, as in kiss Transliterate as K/k [x] – voiceless velar fricative, as in loch (Scottish English) Transliterate as Kh/kh [t] – voiceless alveolar stop, as in tick Transliterate as T/t


Like High Gothic, the grammar of Ȑiþȑa̷în is heavily inflected, though the manner of its inflection is rather exotic. Instead of using multiple different kinds of suffix, which can become cumbersome to use and difficult to remember, Ȑiþȑa̷în makes use of an extensive system of suprafixion, whereby the first vowel sound of a word is modified for tone and length to change the word’s grammatical function. In such a system, one need only know the word itself, even loan words, to know all of its grammatical iterations. Only verbs make use of the suffix-inflection of additional vowels to denote tense and aspect, and hence verbs themselves can be identified by ending with a vowel.

Nouns are inflected for case and number and are recognised for beginning and ending with consonants.

Verbs are inflected for person, number and tense and are recognised for beginning with a consonant and ending with a vowel.

Prepositions and Postpositions are inflected for person and number and are recognised for being comprised of a single consonant and a single vowel in a CV order. Other particles can follow the CV order, but only prepositions and postpositions are inflected.

Inflecting Nouns (Declension)

Modify the first vowel sound of a noun in the following ways to change its case and number. For these tables the vowel ‘u’ will be used to illustrate transliterated forms.

Nominative Case: Singular: mid-tone (ū); Plural: mid-tone, long (ū̱)

Accusative Case: Singular: high-tone (ú); Plural: high-tone, long (ú̱)

Genitive Case: Singular: falling-tone (û); Plural: falling-tone, long (û̱)

Dative Case: Singular: very-low-tone (ȕ); Plural: very-low-tone, long (ȕ̱)

Ablative Case: Singular: rising-tone (ǔ)*; Plural: rising-tone, long (ǔ̱)*

* Requires prepositions or postpositions, which are joined by a hyphen when transliterated.

Adjectives are placed after the nouns they describe (agreeing in case and number) as a hard rule, the only exceptions being certain naming conventions. For example, a common method of forming adjectives is to compound the word lar (‘like’) onto normal nouns, so a phrase like ‘royal legacy’ would be formed as lāþ ȑānlar (‘royal legacy’, from laþ, ‘legacy, heritage’ and ȑan, ‘king, chief’); lā̱þ ȑā̱nlar (‘royal legacies’), &c. The use of lar and other words to form adjectival compounds from nouns can be considered a kind of suffix inflection, especially in the form of Ȑiþȑa̷în called ‘conceptual grammar’.

Inflecting Verbs (Conjunction)

Modify the first vowel sound of a verb in the following ways to change its person and number.

Infinitive: Singular: mid-tone (ū); Plural: mid-tone, long (ū̱)

1st Person: Singular (I): very-low tone (ȕ); Plural (We): very-low tone, long (ȕ̱)

2nd Person: Singular (You): high-tone (ú); Plural (You [all]): high-tone, long (ú̱)

3rd Person: Singular (He/She/It): rising-tone (ǔ); Plural (They): rising-tone, long (ǔ̱)

Indefinite Person (One): Singular: falling-tone (û); Plural: falling-tone, long (û̱)

Suffix the verb in the following ways to indicate tense and aspect. Note that it is a hard rule for verbs to always possess such suffixes. Gerunditives are formed by lengthening the suffixed vowel (e.g. ‘-a’ becomes ‘-a̱’).

Present Tense (I am doing this): suffix with –a

Perfect Tense (I have done this/that): suffix with -a̷i

Past Tense (I used to do that): -u

Past Perfect Tense (I did that): -o

Future Tense (I will do that): suffix with -i

Future Perfect Tense (I will have done that): suffix with –io

Adverbs are placed after the verbs they describe as a hard rule, the only exceptions being certain naming conventions. Adverbs can be recognised by being uninflected nouns pronounced flatly (i.e. with a mid-tone) formed in exactly the same way as adjectives or sometimes as their own words. So for example, the phrases ȑūn ra̷īnlar (‘a good death’) and ȑūna ra̷inlar (‘to die well’) both use the word ra̷inlar (lit. ‘good-like’), but in the first case it is an adjective (‘good/goodly’) and in the second an adverb (‘well’); the literal back-translations would be ‘death good-like’ and ‘to die good-like’.

Inflecting Prepositions and Postpositions

Prepositions and Postpositions can be inflected for person and number as if they were verbs (see above), though are usually used without inflection (pronounced with a mid tone) to retain their core meaning.

Other Particles such as conjunctions are exclusively used uninflected, except in ‘conceptual grammar’. Conjunctions tend to be placed between the words or word-phrases which they link. There are ‘articles’ in Ȑiþȑa̷în, but these are formed with naming conventions rather than separate words or particles.

Word Order

Although there is a broad system of inflection in Ȑiþȑa̷în, word order is still used grammatically for precision of meaning. Generally, sentences follow the Verb-Subject-Object order, or Verb [Adverb] Subject~ [Adjective] Object~ [Adjective]. Prepositions and postpositions go before or after the object they link with as expected, but before any adjectives. Note that these word order rules mean that certain sentence constructions can be used and understood that would not be possible in other inflected languages such as High Gothic. For example the phrase gȁla rá̷ira̱ is simply two verbs, but since they are both inflected for number, person and tense, and there is a recognised word order of V-S-O, then the intended meaning of ‘I hope you are rising’ is perfectly clear even without nouns inflected into the nominative or accusative cases. Even so, this method is considered less precise than using determiners, conjunctions or nouns.


Ȑiþȑa̷în vocabulary is informed principally by the lexicons of Hyntellar, Ledessular, Oummawai and LamEldannar transliterated into Ȑiþȑa̷în phonemes, though the words themselves have a particular status in Ȑiþȑa̷în depending on their consonant to vowel pattern. Since a verb must end with an inflected vowel, but only a name (proper nouns) can begin with one, and since a noun must begin and end with a consonant, the simplest normal words, and the most revered, are CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) nouns and verbs (mandatory inflections are not counted), the 1,280 words created at Farnad before Ȑiþȑa̷în was spoken properly by anyone. These words are regarded as somewhat sacred, and anything more complex than this is considered a ‘subordinate word’. Since native compound words are created from the original 1,280 CVC words, anything which does not follow this pattern (CVCCVC…&c.) is either a foreign loan-word or has lost its extra consonants over time. Typically, the only words which follow a CV pattern are particles. All of this means that word type can generally be deduced from its phonemic pattern as well as its meaning:

C: unused

V: unused

CV: particles. If the vowel is inflected, it is probably a preposition or postposition.

VC: unused

CVC: nouns, adjectives, some adverbs - ‘core words’

CVC-V: verbs, adverbs. The vowel will be a suffix inflection – ‘core words’

CVCCVC+: compound word, neologism or loanword – ‘subordinate core words’

Particle Vocabulary

CV word formations are exclusively reserved for particles. Usually prepositions are used with nouns and postpositions are used with verbs.

bold italic = dictionary entry; Bold Capitalised = proper noun dictionary entry; [square brackets] = cross-reference to another dictionary entry; n. = noun; pn. = proper noun; part. = particle; v. = verb; adv. = adverb.

Ȑ -ȑu- part. inside of, on (from Farnad) -ȑo- part. outside of (from Farnad) -ȑa- part. beyond, except for (from Farnad) -ȑa̷i- part. go into, onto (from Farnad) -ȑi- part. go out, out of (from Farnad) R -ru- part. with (from Farnad) -ro- part. without (from Farnad) L -lu- part. on account of (from Farnad) M -mu- conj. part. before, in front of (from Farnad) -mo- conj. part. before (from LamEldannar uom) -ma- conj. part. after, behind (from LamEldannar ucan) N -no- part. not, negation na conj. and (from LamEldannar na) na̷i conj. and, and also, moreover (from LamEldannar na) V -vo- part. under (from LamEldannar foek) -va- part. above, over (from LamEldannar fein) -va̷i- part. through, [also] because of, thanks to (from Farnad) -vi- part. across (from Farnad) S su conj. or (novel formation from Farnad) so conj. while, if only, so long as, until (from LamEldannar soek) sa part. re-, to do again, repeat (from [ra̷isa̱], ‘two-ing’) si conj. but (from LamEldannar sib) Ð -ðu- part. by, near, close to (from Farnad) -ðo- part. for, pro (from Farnad) -ða- part. against, contra (from LamEldannar than) -ða̷i- n. adj. false, pseudo (from Farnad) Þ -þu- part. within (from Farnad) -þo- part. in, on (from Farnad) -þa̷i- part. between (from LamEldannar dath) -þi- part. around (from LamEldannar hish) G Gy gyo conj. until (from LamEldannar gona) gyi conj. while, as (novel formation from Farnad) D da conj. if (from LamEldannar da) -da̷i- part. under (from Farnad) -di- part. over (from Farnad) B K -ki- part. with (from LamEldannar kion) Kh T -tu- part. from, by, by means of (from LamEldannar tial) -to- part. out of, away from (from Farnad) -ta- part. to, towards (from Farnad) -ta̷i- part. down from, concerning, on (from LamEldannar –ta, ‘legend of’) ti conj. when, whenever, since, because (from LamEldannar timam)

Standard Vocabulary

CVC and CVC-V words are considered ‘core words’, while compound words and neologisms formed from these are considered ‘subordinate core words’. Everything else but CV prepositions is a ‘false word’. In this list, core nouns will be shown in nominative singular while core verbs will be shown in infinitive singular present. Note however that both nouns can be used as verbs, and verbs used as nouns, provided that the appropriate grammatical rules are followed – this is known as ‘conceptual grammar’ when used.

bold italic = dictionary entry; Bold Capitalised = proper noun dictionary entry; [square brackets] = cross-reference to another dictionary entry; n. = noun; pn. = proper noun; part. = particle; v. = verb; adv. = adverb.

Ȑ-ȑ ȑuȑ n. adj. heavy, of heavy weight (novel formation of Farnad) Ȑ-r Ȑ-l ȑul n. love, deepest affection (from Oummawai oul) ȑula v. to love (from Oummawai oul) ȑol n. liking, fondness (from a less intimate form of [ȑul], ‘love’) ȑal n. being (novel formation from Farnad) ȑala v. to be (novel formation from Farnad) ȑa̷il n. handsomeness, attraction or affinity, general liking (from a less intimate form of [ȑul], ‘love’) ȑil n. the abstract concept of beauty (from a much less intimate form of [ȑul], ‘love’) Ȑ-m ȑum n. I, myself, me, self (from Oummawai youm; note that grammatical case is very important in distinguishing the meaning between ‘I’ and ‘self/oneself’) ȑom n. you (from a less intimate form of [ȑum], ‘me’) ȑam n. him/her/it, alternative third person address (from a much less intimate form of [ȑum], ‘me’) ȑa̷im n. one, indefinite person address (from a much less intimate form of [ȑum], ‘me’) Ȑ-n ȑun n. death, to return to the earth (from Oummawai oun) ȑuna v. to die (from Oummawai oun) Ȑunikhaȑ n. a spear martial art emphasising standoff distance and using the enemy’s weight against him (a calque of the Oummawai term Ounfoua, ‘dies first’, from the verb phrase ȑǔni khaȑ, ‘he will die first’) ȑon n. will, courage, bravery (from a more intimate form of [ȑa̷in], ‘agency’) ȑan n. king, chief, unqualified king or chief of everything (from Ledessular ran) ȑanrûþ n. ‘chief-of-the-courtesy’, second head of the household and master or mistress of the household’s manners (compound word) ȑanmâr n. ‘chief-of-wisdom’, highest rank in the early [þa̱ral] order, twelve of these men constituted the [Mār Gyāȑlar] (compound word) ȑānmâr-vīn n. ‘high chief-of-wisdom’, leader of the [þa̱ral] order (compound word) ȑankhâd n. ‘chief-of-the-house’, head of the household (compound word) ȑankhîn n. ‘chief-of-the-village’, a village chief (compound word) ȑa̷in n. agency, capacity, motive power (related to [ȑin], as in ‘the virtue of heroism is agency’) Ȑa̷inraþ pn. ‘the rule of agency’ (compound word) Ȑa̷inðâl pn. the agency of the world (compound word) ȑa̷intâȑ n. the agency of a people, civilisation (quantifiable) (compound word) ȑa̷intâȑa v. to civilise, to endow a people with agency [see ȑa̷in] ȑa̷ina v. to enforce, to compel, to do (strong), to do one’s will (from [ȑa̷in]) ȑa̷inað n. censure, the state of censure or disgrace (from [ȑa̷inaða], ‘to censure’) ȑa̷inaða v. to censure, to put in a state of disgrace (from ȑa̷ina-ða, ‘to compel against’) ȑin n. hero, saviour (from Oummawai wiu) Ȑ-v ȑa̷iv n. adj. eight (from LamEldannar reu) Ȑ-s ȑus n. year, a year (from LamEldannar bruash, ‘world-movement’) ȑos n. generation, generational period of time, roughly 12 local years (from a less intimate form of [ȑus], ‘year’; att. in its technical sense c.822.M33) ȑas n. era, a period of historical time with common characteristyics roughly on the scale of 144 local years, or 298.48 Terran years (from a less intimate form of [ȑus], ‘year’; att. in its technical sense c.822.M33) ȑa̷is n. age, a period of historical time with common, especially eschatological, characteristics roughly on the scale of 1,728 local years, or 3,581.84 Terran years. A ȑa̷is is characterised by whichever race is hegemonic at the time (from a less intimate form of [ȑus], ‘year’; att. in its technical sense c.822.M33) ȑis n. eon, or the longest period of historical time, beyond the scale of eschatological ages (from a less intimate form of [ȑus], ‘year’; att. in its technical sense c.822.M33) Ȑ-ð Ȑ-þ ȑuþ n. ground, land (from Oummawai ouf) ȑuþko̱s n. adj. ‘towersland’, forest (compound word) ȑūþkha̷iȑlar n. ‘god-like land’, divine land, heaven (compound word, c.804.M33) ȑoþa v. to shout (from LamEldannar rroth, ‘shouting’) ȑoþlar adj. adv. shout-like, shoutily, shouty (compound word) ȑa̷iþ n. season, a calendrical or climatic season (from LamEldannar rhiantha, ‘the starlight which shines upon the water of Rhidol in the winter’) ȑiþ n. speech (from LamEldannar rrith) Ȑiþȑa̷în pn. ‘the speech of agency’, ‘civilised speech/language’ (compound word) ȑiþda̷īn n. ‘vice-speaker’, an ambassador, emissary, envoy, representative (compound word) ðoȑiþ n. ‘for-speech’, pronouncement, verdict, declaration (compound word) þa̷iȑiþ n. ‘between-say’, interdict, prohibition, intervention, interruption (compound word) ȑiþa v. to speak, to say, to mouth (from LamEldannar rrith) ȑiþatan n. promise (compound word from ȑiþa-ta, ‘to say towards’) ȑiþatana v. to promise (compound word from ȑiþa-ta, ‘to say towards’) ȑiþatana̱ n. promising, adjuration, esp. of a god (compound word, att.806.M33) vaȑiþatana̱ n. superadjuration, metaphysical concept wherein a creature of heaven appropriates the aspect of the world to a very high degree, such that order can be imposed upon heaven (compound word att.806.M33) Ȑ-g Ȑ-gy Ȑ-d Ȑ-b ȑa̷ib n. dream, specifically a nightime dream while asleep (from LamEldannar raiph, also, raibh) ȑa̷iba v. to dream, to imagine (from LamEldannar raiph, also, raibh) ȑa̷iba̱ n. imagining, imagination (compound word att.806.M33) vaȑa̷iba̱ n. superimagination, metaphysical concept wherein a creature of the world appropriates the aspect of heaven to a very high degree, such that disorder/creation can be imposed upon the world, magic (compound word att.806.M33) Ȑ-k ȑak n. divine flame, esp. one marking the soul and body (from LamEldannar Ra-kian, ‘soulflame’) ȑakka̷īn n. adj. the ‘divine-flame race’, the Rakiana people (compound word, back-formation) Ȑ-kh ȑukh adj. old, of advanced age (from Farnad) Ȑ-t ȑut n. womb, uterus (from Ledessular rut) R-ȑ ra̷iȑ n. rise, a rise, a sunrise, a day (from LamEldannar reia) ra̷iȑa v. to rise (from LamEldannar reia) ra̷iȑa̱n n. ‘risingness’, courage, bravery (from LamEldannar reia) R-r R-l rol n. praise, commendation (from [ȑol], ‘liking, fondness’, related to [ron], ‘regard’) rola v. to praise, to commend (from [ȑol], ‘liking, fondness’, related to [ron], ‘regard’) R-m R-n ron n. regard, approval, esteem, estimation, approbation (from a more intimate form of [ra̷in], ‘good’) ra̷in n. adj. good, honourable, fair (from Oummawai wai) ra̷inlar adj. adv. lit. ‘good-like’, good, goodly, well (compound word) ra̷inȑ n. self-honour, vainglory, narcissism (compound word from ra̷īn ȑūm, ‘self honour’) ra̷inan n. ‘honourable-one’, one who resides within the [roþ] (agent noun of [ra̷in], ‘honourable’) nora̷in n. adj. dishonour, dishonourable (compound word) R-v ra̷iv n. river (from Ledessular raif) R-s ros n. rose, flower, fruit (from Ledessular ros) rostāblar n. ‘salty-rose’, a cauliflower-like crop with a salty taste (compound word) ra̷is n. adj. two (from LamEldannar es) ra̷isa̱ v. ‘two-ing’, re-, to do again, twice (gerunditive verb form of [ra̷is], ‘two) R-ð roða v. to call (from LamEldannar rothe, ‘calling’) roðaþon n. invoker, specifically a spirit of heaven capable of calling in the lawful/orderly aspect of the world to heaven (compound word from roða-þo, ‘to call in’, and foreign element –on to create an agent noun, att.806.M33) roðatan n. ovoker, specifically a person capable of calling the creative power of heaven against the world, a wizard or morally good magic user. Also refers to the formal Ro̱ðatan order (compound word from roða-ta, ‘to call against’, and foreign element –on to create an agent noun, att.806.M33) R-þ ruþ n. code of courtesy, household, a territory governed by courtesy (from a very intimate form of [raþ], ‘rule, law’) roþ n. honour code, community, a territory governed by honour (from a more intimate form of [raþ], ‘rule, law’) raþ n. rule, law, a territory goverened by law (from LamEldannar ath, ‘high, high-one’) raþko̱s n. ‘rule of the towers’, descriptive name for subtropical rainforest (compound word) raþa v. to rule, to rule by laws, to rule lawfully (from LamEldannar ath, ‘high, high-one’) R-g rog n. spear, pointy stick (from Hyntellar rheyg) rogbīs n. ‘goldenspear’, a forest-floor plant endemic to subtropical rainforest (compound word) rogbīssān n. ‘crop-goldenspear’, a staple crop cultivar derived from wild [rogbīs] (compound word) rogþuka̷ǐs n. ‘spear-within-water’, a type of galley ship capable of cruising at 3 knots (compound word) roðogǎ̱ȑ n. a polearm mounting a curved blade, used by pastoralists for cutting through brush and in war (compound word worded in use from the phrase ro̱g ðo-gǎ̱ȑ, ‘spear for grasses’) ra̷ig n. rod, stick, pole, cane (from Hyntellar rheyg) ra̷ig rôgbissan n. ‘rod of rogbissan’, the wooden shaft of a [rogbissan] crop (compound phrase) ra̷ig râ̷igsôg n. ‘rod of ra̷igsôg’, the hollow, bamboo-like wooden shaft of a [ra̷igsôg] crop (compound phrase) ra̷ig tôȑkis n. ‘rod of toȑkis’, the wooden shaft of a [toȑkis] crop (compound phrase) ra̷iglar adj. rod-like (compound word) ra̷igsôg n. ‘rod-of-oil’, a staple crop with a hard shelled stalk and fatty marrow (compound word) ra̷igkhāt n. ‘prize-cane’, a crop which produces a sweet lure fruit at the top of a stalk (compound word) rig n. pike, lance, a very long or very tall shaft (from a ‘less intimate’ or ‘more distant’ form of [rog]) R-gy R-d rud n. obligation, duty, burden, onus (novel formation from Farnad, related to [ȑuȑ], ‘heavy weight’) R-b R-k R-kh rakh n. sun, the star around which Ðal orbits (from Hyntellar rahy, ‘sun’) R-t L- ȑ L-r lor n. reflection, mirror (from LamEldannar elohar, ‘reflection’) lar adj. adv. like, as, -ly, used to form adjectives and adverbs by compounding with nouns and verbs (from Farnad) L-l L-m lam n. mouth, mouthparts (from LamEldannar aithlam) lamtīk n. ‘little-mouth’, a crop which produces delicious lure fruits (compound word) L-n lun n. local hour, timed subdivision of a day (from LamEldannar ainiluin, ‘waiting’) la̷in n. woman, female (from Hyntellar eyn) la̷ina̱ n. v. ‘womaning’, cultural rite marking the end of female childhood and the beginning of adulthood (compound word) lin n. girl (from Oummawai lao ‘woman’) L-v L-s los n. iron, steel, metal (from LamEldannar losse) las n. thumb (from a more intimate form of [la̷is], ‘toe’) la̷is n. toe (from Hyntellar lahs) L-ð L-þ laþ n. legacy, heritage (from Ledessular lath) laþȑân n. ‘legacy of the king’, a princely title used by immediate heirs (compound word) L-g L-gy L-d la̷id n. word (from Ledessular led) [see là̱t] L-b L-k Lukȑan pn. the hero Lakaran (from LamEldannar Lakaran > Oummawai Loukouan) L-kh L-t lot n. a promise, commitment, assurance (from a more intimate form of [lat], ‘word, word of honour’) lota v. to promise, to commit to, to make assurances (from a more intimate form of [lat], ‘word, word of honour’) lat n. word, word of honour (from Hyntellar llat and Ledessular led) lit (synonym) n. six, [see sun] (from Oummawai li) M- ȑ moȑ n. ruin, destruction (from LamEldannar morenn) maȑ n. mother (from Hyntellar myara) maȑkar adj. somewhat mother-like, motherly (compound word) M-r mor n. wisdom, connotations of ruin & destruction (from LamEldannar mor, ‘wisdom, death’) [see moȑ] mar n. wisdom, connotations of ancient & noble leadership (ultimately from shared myths of Illiam Mar and ‘the People of Mar’) mara v. ‘to do wisdom’, to discover knowledge, to do science (ultimately from shared myths of Illiam Mar and ‘the People of Mar’) maran n. ‘wisdomer’, scholar, academic, professor, sage (agent noun of mar-a, ‘to do wisdom’) Mār Gyāȑlar pn. ‘twelvefold-wisdom’, the twelve-member ruling council of the [þa̱ral] order (descriptive phrase used as proper noun) marðâlan n. lit. ‘wisdom-of-Ðal-er’, scholar of Ðal, theologian, priest (agent noun of mar ðâl, ‘wisdom of Ðal’) M-l M-m mam n. familiar form of ‘mother’, mum, mam, mummy (from baby-talk) M-n mun n. foot (from LamEldannar muan) ma̷in n. hand (from LamEldannar men) ma̷inkuȑ n. (taboo) ‘blood hand’, whore, slut, harlot, a woman who has not completed the puberty ritual (compound word) ma̷inkoȑ n. ‘black hand’, moron, idiot, stupid person (from the infant rite of washing off black ink from the hands when the child could write its own name) min n. boy (from Oummawai mao ‘man’) M-v M-s mas n. adj. sweet, tasty, flavoursome, a sweet thing (novel formation from Farnad) ma̱sȑûþ n. ‘ground-sweets’, a moss-grass crop which produces grapelike fruits (compound word) M-ð M-þ maþ n. master (from Ledessular math) M-g M-gy M-d M-b M-k mok n. v. ostracised, outside the community (from Hyntellar marc) mak n. strange, weird, odd, disconcerting (from a less intimate form of Hyntellar marc, ‘ostracised’) M-kh M-t mat n. mat, carpet, floor covering (from Aignar mat) matȑûþ n. ‘mat of the land’, forest-floor moss-grass endemic to subtropical rainforest (compound word) matgyâ̱l n. ‘mat-of-leaves’, a crop of moss-grass which produces edible leaves (compound word) ma̷it n. big, large, great (from Hyntellar my) ma̷ita v. to increase, to make larger (from Hyntellar my) mit n. long, extensive (from a less intimate form of [ma̷it], ‘big’) mitkaȑan n. ‘long-hunter’, hunting bow, bow (compound word) N- ȑ nuȑ n. slayer, killer (novel formation from Farnad) nuȑþô̱k n. ‘slayer of daemons’, an honorific title (compound word) nuȑa v. to kill, to slay (novel formation from Farnad) N-r N-l N-m N-n nun n. a personal conflict, especially of the soul, a conflict with personal daemons (from a much more intimate form of [nan], ‘battle’) non n. a duel, skirmish or small battle (from a more intimate form of [nan], ‘battle’) nan n. battle, fight, instance of mass conflict (ultimately from LamEldannar ann, ‘warrior’) na̷in n. war (from a less intimate form of [nan], ‘battle’) nin n. the abstract concept of conflict (from a much less intimate form of [nan], ‘battle’) N-v N-s N-ð N-þ N-g N-gy N-d N-b N-k na̷ik n. keep, hold, grasp (from LamEldannar aika, ‘holding’) þa̷ina̷ik n. bond, join, unite (compound word from þa̷i-na̷ik, ‘between-hold’) þa̷ina̷ika̱ v. bonding, marriage, union (compound word) na̷ika v. to keep, to hold on to (from LamEldannar aika, ‘holding’) na̷ika̱ v. keeping, holding on to (from LamEldannar aika, ‘holding’) na̷ika̱n n. captivity, a state of being held or kept (from LamEldannar aika, ‘holding’) na̷iku̱n n. past captivity, the state of having been held in captivity in the past (verb-to-noun transformation of naiku̱, ‘to have been holding’) N-kh N-t nut n. adj. seven (from LamEldannar ut) V-ȑ voȑ n. a domesticated species of Sam with a large body, dextrous arms and rectilinear locomotion, raised like cattle for its meat, bones, hide and feathers. va̷iȑ n. skin, hide or rawhide (from a less intimate form of [voȑ], since these animals were raised for their hides, a less-intimate form of their name can refer to their ‘outer layer’) viȑ n. leather (from a less intimate form of [voȑ], referring to processed voȑ hide) V-r var n. fire (from Oummawai faah) V-l valos n. forge, smithy, furnace (from a portmaneau of var los, ‘iron fire’, att. between 890.M32-300.M33) val n. hair, as of a person (from a more intimate form of [va̷il], ‘feather’) valsân n. ‘hair-of-the-crop’, coir, coarse fibres and yarn made from the beaten husks of [rogbīssān] (compound word) va̷il n. feather, the fur of a beast (probably from LamEldannar, felchu, ‘raptor’) gyuva̷il n. ‘cozy feather’, down feather (contracted from gyul-va̷il) vil n. generous, benevolent, kind (from Oummawai fiil) V-m V-n vun n. martial art, practice, or form, a way of war (from Oummawai ounfoua, ‘dies-first’, the spear martial-art) vunan n. martial artist, practitioner, adherent of a martial art (agent noun of [vun], ‘martial art, practice’) vunrog n. ‘martial art spear’, a simple yari-style spear used by the [vunan] martial-arts practitioners (compound word) von n. adj. eleven (novel formation from Farnad) van n. adj. west (from LamEldannar fein, ‘above’) va̷in n. concept (from Oummawai awai ‘words, language’) va̷inlar adj. adv. ‘concept-like’, conceptual (compound word) vin n. high (from LamEldannar fein, ‘above’) V-v vavon n. ‘over-under’, a repoussé technique and style of relief decoration (compound word att.c.1st Century M34) V-s vas n. plot or field, division of land (from LamEldannar as, ‘land’) vasa v. ‘to field’, to go into an agricultural field and collect crops, to harvest, to gather crops, to glean (from LamEldannar as, ‘land’) vaskhān n. ‘field-one’, the field in which staple crops were grown in the six-field system of crop rotation (compound word) vasra̷is n. ‘field-two’, one of the fallow fields in the six-field system of crop rotation (compound word) vastīȑ n. ‘field-three’, one of the fallow fields in the six-field system of crop rotation (compound word) vaskān n. ‘field-four’, one of the fallow fields in the six-field system of crop rotation (compound word) vasdīb n. ‘field-five’, the field in which secondary/nutritious crops were grown in the six-field system of crop rotation (compound word) vassūn n. ‘field-six’, the field in which tertiary crops were grown in the six-field system of crop rotation (compound word) vas ȑûth̊ko̱s n. phrase, ‘field of the forest’ a phrase referring to wild forest pasture for livestock (compound word) vassila̱ n. ‘field-resting’, the lying fallow and fertilising of an agricultural field (compound word) V-ð V-þ vuþ n. the past, before (from Oummawai foua) vaþ n. adj. zero, nothing, nought (from LamEldannar ifeth, ‘void’) V-g V-gy vagy n. council, congress, assembly (from LamEldannar vyar) V-d V-b V-k vuk n. low (from LamEldannar feik, ‘below’) vukvin n. ‘low-high’, an offensive gesture whereby the hand is brought up from the abdomen and flicked out from the head (compound word). vik n. adj. east (from LamEldannar feik, ‘below’) V-kh vukh n. victor, conqueror, winner (from Hyntellar vyukho) vukha̱tik n. ‘the little victory’, cultural rite of allowing newborns to be exposed to the community (compound word) vukhtik n. ‘the little victor’, a newborn child who has successfully recovered from the illness associated with exposure to the community (compound word) vokh n. desire, want, longing, aspiration (from a more intimate form of [va̷ikh], ‘envy’) vokhâmmo̱ȑ n. ‘desire of Ammo̱ȑ’, sin (compound word) vakha̷iþ n. an empire, esp. an illegitimate one (from Ȑeiviþ vaheiþ, ‘over-rule, empire’, att c.614.M33) va̷ikh n. envy, jealousy, particularly of an overt or expressed kind (from LamEldannar eikh, ‘spitting’) V-t vota v. to buy, to purchase (from a more intimate form of [vat], ‘coin’) vat n. pale or light in colour (from LamEldannar, at) vat (homophone) n. ‘pale’, a coin, unit of currency (from the principal coinage metal, electrum, which was referred to as bisvat, ‘palegold’, att. c.7th century M32) va̷ita v. to sell, to vend, to retail (from a less intimate form of [vat], ‘coin’) vit n. truth (from Hyntellar fhyt) divit n. lit. ‘over-truth’, existence, being (compound word) S- ȑ siȑ n. spirit, soul (from Ledessular spiraihn) siȑþal n. lit. ‘spirit-place’, heaven, one of the spheres of existence (compound word att.806.M33) ða̷isiȑ n. ‘pseudo-spirit’, the mind as conceived as an imitation of the creativity of heaven (compound word att.806.M33) S-r sor n. salutation, greeting/farewell custom (from LamEldannar cerka, ‘welcome’) ðasor n. ‘anti-salutation’, a gesture of disrespect or disapproval delivered to another (compound word) sar n. fertility, fecundity (from LamEldannar Isha, fertility goddess) ðasǎr n. infertility, anti-fertility, religious concept which describes the wish to reduce fertility (from ða-sǎr, ‘contra-fertility’) sara v. to fertilise (from LamEldannar Isha, fertility goddess) sa̷ira v. to disperse, to scatter (from LamEldannar seira, ‘dispersed’) sa̷irûþ n. island, islands, lit. ‘scatter-of-land’ (compound word att 7th C M33) S-l sula v. to walk (from Ledessular sul) Sula̱kōȑkha̷ī̱n pn. ‘ink-walking-men’, messenger-soldiers of the [Þa̱ral] era (compound word) sal n. eldest, elder (from Hyntellar sahl) sol n. sign, symbol, sigil, seal (from Ledessular solahd, ‘sign, symbol’) sa̷il n. song, tune (from LamEldannar shelwe) sil n. rest, sleep, to lie fallow (from LamEldannar ishill, ‘still’) sila v. to rest, to sleep, to lie fallow (from LamEldannar ishill, ‘still’) S-m sum n. sword, blade (from Oummawai soum) sumraig n. ‘sword-rod’, a polarm the height of a man with a blade length half of its total length, carried by the [Su̱la̱kōȑkha̷ī̱n] (compound word) sam n. adj. a taxonomic class of creatures with serpentine-avian features (from LamEldannar saim, ‘serpent’) S-n sun (synonym) n. adj. six [see lit] (from LamEldannar sun) son adj. bright (from Ledessular soln) san n. placenta, nourishing thing, crop (from Oummawai swaan) sansa̷î̱l n. ‘crop-of-songs’, a staple crop which produces protein-rich wafers (compound word) santôs n. ‘crop-of-rain’, a vegetable crop which produces a root-colony of water-filled nodules (compound word) sa̷in n. knowledge, information (from Hyntellar sayn) S-v S-s sis n. thirst, the condition of desiring a drink (novel formation from Farnad) sisa v. to thirst (novel formation from Farnad) Sisa̱kha̱n pn. ‘the thirsting ones’, mysterious daemons defeated by the [Ȑakka̷īn] in the deep past (compound word) S-ð S-þ saþ n. repository, store, depot (from LamEldannar xamanth, ‘repository of knowledge’) saþgyâs n. ‘store of memory/history’, an archive, a historical archive (compound word) S-g sog n. oil, grease, fat (novel formation from Farnad) S-gy S-d sud n. adj. eternal, eternity (from Hyntellar srodal) sod n. adv. ever, at any time (from a less intimate form of [sud], ‘eternal’) sad n. star (from Oummawai sah) S-b S-k sa̷ik n. lucky, favoured, marked by destiny (from Hyntellar salhyk) S-kh sokh n. bearing, demeanour, countenance (from a more intimate form of [sa̷ikh], ‘stand’) sakh n. posture, comportment, stance, pose (from a more intimate form of [sa̷ikh], ‘stand’) sa̷ikh n. stand, standing (from Hyntellar sy) sikh n. sight (from Oummawai si) sikhtavǎþ n. ‘towards-zero-sight’, the artistic technique of forcing the eye to focus on an area of simplicity by surrounding it with complex contrasting designs (compound word att.c.1st Century M34) sikha v. to see (from Oummawai si) sikha̷ia v. lit. ‘to be have seen’, a formation of conceptual grammar which means ‘to witness’, a philosophical discipline similar to theological logic (from the perfect tense sikh-a̷i, ‘to have seen’ transformed into the present tense) S-t sot n. work, labour, especially personal labour (derived from a more intimate form of [sa̷it], ‘slave, servant’) sota v. to work, to labour (derived from a more intimate form of [sa̷it], ‘slave, servant’) sa̷it n. slave, servant, also a domesticated species of Sam raised for its feathers, down, meat and eggs (from Ledessular serreht) sit n. picture, drawing (from Oummawai si) sitȑūþ n. lit. ‘land-picture’, a type of map (compound word) Ð- ȑ Ð-r ðar n. arm (novel formation from Farnad) ðara v. lit. ‘to arm’, to throw (novel formation from Farnad) ðaraton n. sling, stone-throwing thong, ‘thrower’ (from ðara-to, ‘to throw away from’) ðara̱n n. sleeves, esp. a kind of detatchable pair of sleeves which were a separate garment in their own right (from the gerund ðara̱, ‘arm-ing’) Ð-l ðola v. to do (novel formation from Farnad) Ðal n. pn. world, earth, soil, the planet (from Ledessular ahld) ðallar adj. of the world, terrene (compound word) ðala̱ n. v. ‘worlding’, birth, esp. cultural birthing rites (compound word) ðala̱n n. ‘worlder’, midwife (compound word) ða̷il n. creation, a creation, a make, a ware (less intimate form of [Ðal]) ða̷ila v. to create, to make (less intimate form of [Ðal]) ða̷ila̱n n. lit. ‘creatingness’, industry, production (a noun of the verb ða̷ila̱, ‘creating’) ðil n. life, vigour (from Ledessular fil) Ð-m ðum n. drum, any bass resonant noise (onomatopoeic) ðom n. gong, any similar instrument or noise (from a ‘less intimate’ form of [ðum], ‘drum’) Ð-n ðona v. to go (novel formation from Farnad) ða̷in n. vandal, breaker, wanton destroyer (from LamEldannar zenil, ‘broken’) ða̷inrâþ n. lit. ‘vandal of law’, warlock, a morally evil person capable of using the power of heaven to destroy the world (compound word att.806.M33) ða̷inða̷îl n. lit. ‘vandal of creation’, divine tyrant, a morally evil spirit of heaven capable of using the lawful/orderly power of the world to control or dominate heaven (compound word att.806.M33) ða̷ina v. to vandalise, to break, to wantonly destroy (from LamEldannar zenil, ‘broken’) ða̷inal n. vandalism, the quality of wanton destruction (from LamEldannar zenil, ‘broken’) Ð-v Ð-s Ð-ð Ð-þ ðaþ n. adj. middle, medium, esp. as of weight (novel formation from Farnad) Ð-g Ð-gy Ð-d Ð-b Ð-k Ð-kh Ð-t Þ- ȑ Þ-r þar n. one who harks, one who listens attentively (from Ledessular harl) þara v. to hark, to listen attentively (from Ledessular harl) þaral n. adj. specifically one of the [Þa̱ral] or Harlastes, one who is a harkener (verb to noun transformation) Þa̱ral pn. ‘the harkeners’, theological ruling order of high priests (from Ledessular harl) Þ-l þol n. all (from Hyntellar ohl) viþol n. lit. ‘across-all’, universal, ecumenical (compound word from vi-þǒl att.806.M33) þal n. place (from Ledessular ahld, ‘world’) þa̷il n. context, scene, situation, circumstance (from a less intimate form of [þal], ‘place’) Þ-m þum n. us, we, our group (from Oummawai oumm ‘people, nation, us, we’) Þ-n þon n. string instrument (onomatopoeic) þa̷in n. that one, him, it (from Ledessular aign ‘man’) þin n. that one, her, it (from Ledessular eign ‘woman’) Þ –v Þ-s Þ-ð Þ-þ Þ-g Þ-gy Þ-d Þ-b Þ-k þok n. Ork, daemon (from Hyntellar orkhs and Oummawai ouks) þoktīk n. ‘little-daemon’, gretchin, grots, small Orks (compound word) Þ-kh Þ-t G- ȑ goȑ n. weight, the weight of something (from Hyntellar gra, cognate with [gyaȑ]) goȑȑūȑ n. adj. ‘heavyweight’ (compound word) gorðāþ n. adj. ‘middleweight’ (compound word) goȑtīt n. adj. ‘lightweight’ (compound word) goȑbîd n. adj. ‘weight-of’food’, a system of nutritional theory which classified foods into one of three categories based on its ‘heaviness’ (compound word) gaȑ n. grass, seaweed (from Ledessular gra) gaȑkô̱s n. ‘grass-towers’, a vegetable crop of the shoots of new trees (compound word) G-r gor n. head (from LamEldannar gorach) gar n. a question, query (from LamEldannar garem, ‘how?’) gara v. to ask, to query (from LamEldannar garem, ‘how?’) G-l gul n. doom (from LamEldannar angau) gol n. adj. a dozen dozen, a gross, 144 (from Hyntellar gro) golgun n. adj. 248,832, a gross mass (compound word) golgunun n. adj. 429,981,696, a gross mass mass (compound word) gal n. hope (from LamEldannar angau, ‘destiny’) gala v. to hope (from LamEldannar angau, ‘destiny’) galsa̷in n. universal history, world history, grand narrative (compound word from Gā̱l Sa̷īn, ‘revealed destinies’, att. 822.M33) ga̷il n. destiny, esp. of a person or thing (from a less intimate form of [gal], ‘hope’) gil n. the ultimate destiny of the universe, eschatological destiny (from a much less intimate form of [gal], ‘hope’) G-m G-n gun n. adj. a dozen dozen dozen, a great gross, a mass, 1,728 (from Hyntellar gruiyn) gunun n. adj. 2,985,984, a mass mass (compound contracted from gun-gun) ga̷in n. adj. 5,159,780,352, a mass mass mass (novel formation from Farnad) G-v G-s G-ð G-þ G-g G-gy G-d ga̷id n. torso (from LamEldannar gaied, ‘chest’) G-b G-k G-kh G-t Gy- ȑ gyoȑ n. rock, boulder (from a more intimate/elemental form of [gyaȑ]) gyaȑ n. adj. dozen, twelve, a weight (from Hyntellar gra) gyaȑgun n. adj. 20,736, a dozen mass (compound word) gyaȑgunun n. adj. 35,831,808, a dozen mass mass (compound word) gyaȑa v. to weigh (from Hyntellar gra) gya̷iȑ n. stone, pebble, fashioned rock (from a less intimate/elemental form of [gyaȑ]) Gy-r gyar n. pleasant, virtue (from Hyntellar hyarn) Gy-l gyul n. adj. cozy, snug, comfortable, restful, homely; implies a place where tea will be served (from a more intimate form of [gyol], ‘tea’) gyol n. tea, infusion beverage or liquid (from [gyalrog] and the practice of making tea from the needle-leaves of trees) gyal n. leaf (from Hyntellar gallf) gyalrōg n. ‘spear-leaf’, a tree leaf in the form of a needle or spine (compound word) gya̷il n. tanning agent or tanning liquid (from a less intimate form of [gyol], which was used as a tanning agent) Gy-m Gy-n gyun n. strength, power (from Oummawai youn) gyan n. that one, it (from Oummawai pyaan) Gy-v Gy-s gyos n. wrath, formidable anger, indignation (from LamEldannar eosik, ‘fearsome’) gyas n. history, memory, sum of knowledge, total or holistic understanding (from LamEldannar shiasta, ‘history’) ȑagyas n. ‘beyond-history’, metahistory, metaphysics (compound word) gyis n. peace, lack of violence, harmony (from LamEldannar istu) Gy-ð Gy-þ Gy-g Gy-gy Gy-d Gy-b Gy-k Gy-kh Gy-t gyut n. art, an art (from Hyntellar aruyt) gyot n. style, a style (from a more abstract form of [gyut], ‘art’) gyat n. strong, the virtue of strength (from Hyntellar hyat) D- ȑ duȑ n. doubt, uncertainty, unworthiness (from Ledessular duhrbam) daȑ n. adj. nine (from LamEldannar daras) D-r dar n. leg (from LamEldannar darhathin) dara̱d n. boots, boot-leggings (from the gerund dara̱, ‘legging’) D-l dal adj. second (from Hyntellar dalls) D-m dum n. wood, tree product (from Oummawai du) D-n dun n. cured wood, prepared tree product (from Oummawai dou) da̷in n. vice, deputy, lieutenant, right-hand man (unknown etymology) din n. matter, substance, essence, dust, powder (from LamEldannar addin, ‘dust’) D-v D-s da̷is n. door, gate, portal, entrance (from LamEldannar deas) D-ð D-þ duþ n. ‘soul-colour’, personality, aura (from a more intimate form of [diþ], ‘colour’) doþ n. mood, temper, humour (from a more intimate form of [diþ], ‘colour’) daþ n. complexion, skin-colour, pigmentation (from a more intimate form of [diþ], ‘colour’) da̷iþ n. pigment, dye, paint (from a more intimate form of [diþ], ‘colour’) da̷iþ mâ̱sȑûþ n. ‘dye of ma̱sȑûþ’, dye extracted from the [ma̱sȑûþ] crop (compound phrase) da̷iþ lâmtik n. ‘dye of lamtik’, dye extracted from the [lamtik] crop (compound phrase) da̷iþ râ̷igkhat n. ‘dye of ra̷igkhat’, dye extracted from the [ra̷igkhat] crop (compound phrase) diþ n. colour (ultimately from Hyntellar dahsr, colour) D-g D-gy D-d D-b dib n. adj. five (from LamEldannar deh) D-k D-kh D-t B- ȑ buȑ n. gratitude, thankfulness (from a more intimate form of [boȑ], ‘gift’) buȑa v. to be grateful for, to be thankful for (from a more intimate form of [boȑa], ‘to give’) boȑ n. gift, present (from LamEldannar borrial, borif) boȑa v. to give, to gift (from LamEldannar borrial, borif) boȑa̱n n. ‘giftingness’, benevolence (from LamEldannar borrial, borif) baȑ n. barge, boat, river-boat, canal-boat (from Ledessular bahr) B-r bar n. wind, storms, rushing air (from LamEldannar baharr, baruth) B-l bal n. father (from Hyntellar pyalla) baltâȑ n. ‘father-of-the-people’, a royal title endowed to a sovereign (compound word) ba̷il n. way, path, route (from LamEldannar belac, belah, belar) ba̷ilbaȑ/ba̷ilaȑ n. lit. ‘barge-way’, canal, channel (compound word, contacted form att.c.750.M33) ba̷ilaȑon n. channeler, conduit-maker, canal-maker, specifically a being endowed with the ability to bridge heaven and world, a sorcerer, interventionist god/daemon, &c. (compound word from [ba̷ilaȑ], ‘barge-way, canal’, and the foreign [Roþaiȑ] element –on to create an agent noun, att.806.M33) B-m B-n ban n. energy beam, lightning (from LamEldannar bahn) ba̷in n. the first (from Ledessular praon) [see khaȑ] B-v B-s bis n. adj. gold, golden, specifically the natural yellow-gold of native flora (from LamEldannar piost, ‘burnished’) B-ð B-þ B-g B-gy B-d bad n. an evil woman (from LamEldannar bad, ‘woman’) bid n. food (from Hyntellar byd) bida v. ‘to food’, to eat (verb form of [bid]) bida̱ka̷ið n. ‘eating-fluid’, digestive enzymes, acids, corrosive liquids, &c. (compound word from bida̱, ‘eating’ and ka̷ið, ‘fluid’) bida̱ka̷ið râ̷igsôg n. ‘eating-fluid of ra̷igsôg’, digestive enzymes extracted from the [râ̷igsôg] crop (compound phrase) bida̱ka̷ið lâmtik n. ‘eating-fluid of lamtik’, digestive enzymes extracted from the [lamtik] crop (compound phrase) bida̱ka̷ið râ̷igkhat n. ‘eating-fluid of raigkhat’, digestive enzymes extracted frm the [raigkhat] crop (compound phrase) B-b bab n. familiar form of ‘father’, dad, daddy (from baby-talk) B-k B-kh B-t bat n. brother (from Hyntellar braht) ba̷it n. friend (from a less intimate form of [bat], ‘brother’) K- ȑ kuȑ n. blood (from a more intimate form of [koȑ], ‘ink’) kuȑa̱lîn n. ‘girl’s blooding’, first menstruation, female puberty (compound word) kuȑa̱kha̷în n. (obsolete) ‘man’s blooding’, former coming of age rite in which a man would be required to slay a [þoktik] in order to earn marriage rights (compound word) koȑ n. ink, black (from LamEldannar cormer, ‘black’) koȑa n. to ink, to write (from LamEldannar cormer, ‘black’) koȑa̱ȑil n. ‘beauty-writing’, an artistic motif making use of the written word (compound word att.c.1st Century M34) koȑa̱ n. v. ‘inking’, cultural rite beginning the education of an infant (compound word) ka̷iȑ n. mountain (from LamEldannar caur, ‘huge, giant, &c.’) kaȑ n. hunt (from LamEldannar karan) kaȑa v. to hunt (from LamEldannar karan) kaȑan n. hunter (from LamEldannar karan) kiȑ n. dome, hemisphere (from Hyntellar cyrol) kiȑþol n. lit. ‘all-dome’, a sphere (compound word) kiȑþ n. plane, a plane of existence or reality (from [kiȑþol], ‘sphere’, att.806.M33) vikiȑþ n. Transphere, translocate, change from one plane of existence to another, e.g. from the world to heaven or vice-versa (compound word att.806.M33) vikiȑþa v. to transphere, to translocate, to ascend to heaven, to manifest in the world (compound word att.806.M33) K-r kar adj. adv. somewhat like, similar to, used to form adjectives and adverbs by compounding [see lar] K-l K-m kam n. revenge, vengeance (from LamEldannar camion, ‘revenging’) ka̷im n. justice, balance, fairness (a less intimate form of [kam]) ðaka̷ǐm n. injustice, imbalance, unfairness (compound word from ða-ka̷ǐm, ‘contra-justice’) kim n. condign, due, just rewards, tally (from a less intimate form of [ka̷im], ‘justice’) K-n kan n. adj. four (from LamEldannar kan) ka̷in n. race, breed (from LamEldannar Rakian, ‘soulflame’, as in the people of the Rakiana) kin n. adj. adv. intelligible, understandable (from Hyntellar hyntellar) K-v K-s kos n. tower, tree (from LamEldannar koesh) kosȑān n. ‘chief tower/tree’, a tetrapodal species of tree endemic to subtropical rainforest (compound word) kossâ̱d n. ‘tree-of-stars’, a tree producing exceptionally hard timber related to Quaban and western Sahdu (compound word) ka̷is n. water, open water, lake, sea, ocean (from Ledessular auis) ka̷issam n. lit. ‘sepent-bird water’, the eastern ocean of Ðal (from Marrôs, att.c. 10th century M33) ka̷isa̱ n. v. ‘watering’, funeral, funerary rites (compound word) kis n. soul, heart, core (from Oummawai kiis) K-ð ka̷ið n. fluid, liquid (an abstract version of [ka̷is], ‘water’) K-þ K-g K-gy K-d K-b K-k K-kh K-t ka̷it n. coat (from Ledessular coht) ka̷itva̷î̱l n. ‘coat of feathers’, a kind of sleeveless overcoat made from feathers and cloth (compound word) Kh- ȑ khuȑ n. heavy elite infantryman, knight, armoured warrior, hammer-warrior (loan word from Ȑeiviþ ‘huȑ’, ‘heavy’, att. c.800.M33) khuȑig n. ‘lance/pike knight’, a type of heavily armoured infantryman bearing a long lance (contracted compound word from khūȑ rīg att c.810.M33) khoȑ n. body, flesh (from Ledessular cohrba) khoȑþal n. lit. ‘body-place’, the mundane world, one of the spheres of existence (compound word att.806.M33) khaȑ adj. first (from Hyntellar char) [see bai̯n] khaȑnaþol n. lit. ‘first-and-all’, the creator and origin of creation, the one god (compound word att. 806.M33) Khaȑasat pn. the hero Lord Harasata of Farnad (from LamEldannar Harasata) kha̷iȑ n. god, a god (from LamEldannar cae; folk etymology att. 10th century M33 credits kha̷iȑ as a portmanteau of ra̷iȑa̷i, ‘to have risen’ and khaȑ, ‘first, prince’, claiming that the word for ‘god’ means literally ‘exalted ruler’) Kh-r Kh-l khol n. choice, selection (from Ledessular oel) khola v. to choose, to select (from Ledessular oel) kha̷il n. name, personal name, true nature (from Oummawai –uwai-) khaila̱ n. v. ‘naming’, cultural rite of the naming of children (compound word) khal n. scar, mark, birthmark (from Hyntellar kyallat) Kh-m  kham n. enemy, adversary, opponent (from Hyntellar ahms, ‘enemy’) Kh-n khunvun n. an ancient traditional spear-dance and martial art (from Oummawai, ounfoua, ‘dies-first’) khan n. adj. one (from LamEldannar ca) kha̷in n. man, male (from Hyntellar ayn or Ledessular aign) kha̷invâgy n. ‘man of the council’, councilman (compound word) kha̷ina̱ n. v. ‘manning’, cultural rite marking the end of male childhood and the beginning of adulthood (compound word) khin n. town, village, city (from Hyntellar cyn) khinðum n. ‘village-drum’, a symbol of the authority of the village chief (compound word, att. c.876.M32) Kh-v Kh-s khus n. strike, blow, hit (from Hyntellar cues, ‘strike’) khos n. offend, attack, assault, harass (from a less intimate form of [khus]) khas adj. n. sacred, holy (from Oummawai –aahs-) kha̷is n. adj. profundity, profound, deep (from a less intimate form of [khas], ‘holy’) Kh-ð khoð n. warden, guardian (from Hyntellar hostyar) khoðrân n. ‘warden of the king’, a son of the king and half-brother of the crown prince, sworn to protect them and the monarchy (compound word) khað n. armour, harness, the body’s ward (from a less intimate form of [khoð], ‘warden’) Kh-þ Kh-g Kh-gy Kh-d khad n. house, dwelling (probably coined c.5th century M32) khada̱n n. ‘housing’, architecture, building, construction (verb to noun transformation from khada̱, ‘housing’) Kh-b Kh-k khak n. unbreakable (from Oummawai ankaka) Kh-kh Kh-t khot n. pleasure, a pleasure (from a more intimate form of [khat], ‘treasure’) khat n. adj. prize, reward, treasure (from LamEldannar kharant, ‘giving’) khatal n. ‘syllabus-house’, school, college (from a portmanteau of khad tal, ‘syllabus house’) T-ȑ toȑ n. bone, root, column, pillar (from Hyntellar tors) toȑkīs n. ‘heart-root’, a crop which produces sweet, engorged roots (compound word) taȑ n. folk, people, nation, tribe (from Hyntellar –ar) vataȑ n. lit. ‘over-the-people’, an elected monarch raised above the dignity of ordinary people (derived from ra̷ȉ̱ȑa̷i va-þū̱m þa̷ín, ‘we have raised him to be above us’, att. 10th century M34). ta̷iȑ n. adj. south (from LamEldannar tera, ‘left of’) tiȑ n. adj. three (from LamEldannar tir) T-r T-l tal n. teachings, ideas or principles to be taught, a syllabus (derived from [tala]) tala v. to teach (from Ledessular tal) ta̷il n. diction (from Hyntellar Hyntellar) ta̷ilkin n. the quality of having good diction, lit. ‘intelligible diction’, good manners (compound word) T-m tam n. adj. ten (from LamEldannar eta) Ammo̱ȑ pn. transliterated form of Amurdath, the chief daemon, lit. ‘ten-ruins’ (compound word name) T-n tun n. adj. humility, humble (novel formation from Farnad) tuna v. to humble (novel formation from Farnad) ton n. surrender, submit, yield, give in (from a less intimate form of [tun], ‘humility’) tontakhǒt n. ‘to surrender to pleasure’, hedonism, sloth, laziness, indulgence (compound word from tōna ta-khǒt, ‘to surrender to pleasure’) tona v. to surrender, to submit, to yield, to give in (from a less intimate form of [tun], ‘humility’) tan n. conform (from a much less intimate form of [tun], ‘humility’) tana v. to conform (from a much less intimate form of [tun], ‘humility’) ta̷in n. end, ending, limit (from LamEldannar Tain) tin n. the abstract concept of submission, cowardice (from a much less intimate form of [tun], ‘humility’) T-v tav n. adj. north (from LamEldannar tava, ‘right of’) T-s tos n. rain (from LamEldannar toss, ‘stream’) ta̷is n. third (from Hyntellar tres) T-ð T-þ toþ n. week (from LamEldannar orthrun, the last day of the Eldar week) T-g tog n. cloth, rags (from Hyntellar teg) togðokǒr n. ‘cloth-for-ink’, a type of smooth flexible textile made from woven plant fibres and painted white, used to write upon and stored as a scroll (compound word) tag n. something that is worn, clothing (from a more intimate form of [ta̷ig], ‘clothing’) taga v. to wear, to don, to dress (from a more intimate form of [ta̷ig], ‘clothing’) ta̷ig n. clothing, covering, cloth (from Hyntellar teyg) ta̷igīt n. a basic garment made of cloth, much like a tunic (from ta̷īg tīt, ‘light clothes’) ta̷ikôȑ n. a jet black or ochre red half sleeved robe dyed with ink (from ta̷īg kôȑ, ‘clothes of ink’) ta̷iga v. to clothe (from Hyntellar teyg) T-gy T-d T-b tub n. insult, slight (from Oummawai toup) tab n. salt (from the onomatopoeic sound of tasting salt) T-k ta̷ik n. particular, parochial, confined or limited (from [tik]) tik n. small, little, diminutive (from LamEldannar cre-) tika v. to make smaller, to decrease  (from LamEldannar cre-) T-kh ta̷ikh n. adj. spit, saliva, something that is spat (from LamEldannar ehk, ehka, eihk, ‘spitting’, ultimately onomatopoeic) ta̷ikha̱sān n. ‘spitter-crop’, a staple crop cultivar which regularly produces seeds (compound word) ta̷ikha v. to spit (from LamEldannar ehk, ehka, eihk, ‘spitting’) tikh n. adj. new, recent, latest (from Farnad, by contrast with [ȑukh], ‘old’) T-t tut n. application, something that is to be applied (derived from [tuta]) tuta v. to apply, to exert, to administer, to implement (from [tu-], ‘from’ and [ta-], ‘towards’) tutaðil n. an endeavour (derived from [tutaðila]) tutaðila v. lit. ‘to apply vigour’, to endeavour, to do one’s utmost (from [tuta] and [ðil]) tit n. adj. light, esp. as of weight (novel formation from Farnad)
Comment by Hostarius 21st August 2020

Oof, the formatting is really messed up there. Sorry, it's a copy and paste from MS Word.

Comment by Hostarius 21st August 2020

Wow, I thoroughly enjoyed reading all of that! Ȑǎla Ȑīþȑa̷în sót ma̷ít. (I probably got that wrong.)

I find it interesting that they strongly view sounds as though they are on a continuum from low to high, and [faint] to sonorous. Also, it’s funny that you delve into the use of diacritics and nonstandard letters, but still have “gy” and “kh” as digraphs. Nice use of long vowels to mark plural.

Also, I see six tense aspects. Aren’t there supposed to be five? And “[ɵ]” should be “[θ]”.

[zdədʒ j? gzən ŋiɯ̯ vin w? znɐɱ ʒgɯː zɱiv gzən ŋiɯ̯ nɐe̯]

Translated from my language: “NGAKO”:

“Your language is a lot more inflected than mine.”

Comment by TH3_C0N-MAN 21st August 2020

By the way, that’s got to be one of the longest comments on “FontStruct”. I mean, it literally contains a language’s entire dictionary!

Comment by TH3_C0N-MAN 21st August 2020

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