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Painstakingly redone from movie screenshots.
Characters guessed: b j q x z " ! @ _ $ + ; [ \ ] ` ~
The ^ caret character is an upward pointing arrow, and is shown in the movie. This is correct based on the old ASCII-1963 standard, where ^ and _ were an upward and leftward pointing arrow, respectively.
I don't believe this font actually matches any specific contemporary terminal from the mid 70s to early 80s, I believe it was done custom for the movie. It is clearly inspired by the character set from several terminals.
One notable feature of the font (shared with several CRT terminals in the 1970s and 1980s) is that no more than 8 adjacent vertical rows within the 7*x10 character cell can be active at any given point. The 'block cursor' violates this, but the circuitry to display that was separate from the circuitry to read the character ROM and shift it vertically.
* Technically the character is 8 pixels wide, but if the 8th/leftmost pixel is set, it will apparently also appear as the rightmost '9th' pixel in the inter-character column, which is undesirable.This can be seen in the custom character set in the movie used for the country outlines during the "UNITED STATES" "SOVIET UNION" "WHICH SIDE DO YOU WANT?" scene. (Either that, or this was an accidental error during creation of those custom characters for the movie.)
The movie also often uses an "overline" character in order to underline the row above, and this occupies an entire row of characters on screen when this happens. Is this the true 'shape' of the underline character?